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The Deadly Mix
The Deadly Mix is a theory derived from the results of a trilogy of research studies on the dynamic interactions
among officers, offenders, and the circumstances during line-of-duty assaults. To reduce violent encounters in
which assaults and killings of law enforcement officers take place, society must first understand the dynamics
involved in these incidents. The purpose of this new research project is to update and expand information
obtained in the three previous studies. If you would like to submit an officer/offender encounter for examination as part of this
research project, please visit the website.
Cases for examination include incidents in which there was interaction between the officer and the offender prior to the
assault and the officer was assaulted with a firearm, a cutting instrument, or another weapon, including hands, fists, and feet.
The offender(s) must have been identified, arrested, tried, and convicted or have pleaded guilty and exhausted all appeals.
LEO Near Miss
The LEO Near Miss system, developed in partnership with six national policing organizations
and associations, was developed to allow law enforcement personnel to share close calls,
helping their peers stay safe and prevent tragedies. The Police Foundation leads the implementation of the system with
support from the Motorola Solutions Foundation and the U.S. Department of Justice’s Office of Community Oriented Policing
Services (COPS Office).
A near miss is a close call and/or unsafe occurrence that could have resulted in a serious injury, a fatality, significant property
damage, and/or a crisis if not for a fortunate break in the chain of events. It is an experience through which other law
enforcement personnel can benefit and learn. To date, near-miss incident reports have been submitted by officers involved
in near misses related to pursuits, attempted ambushes, concealed weapons, warrant service, and vehicle stops. The mission
of the LEO Near Miss system is to encourage law enforcement personnel to share their stories and lessons learned in near-miss
incidents in order to shield other law enforcement personnel from accidents, injuries, and fatalities, as well as to prevent
other community crises. The sharing of a law enforcement professional’s story is an anonymous, secure, nonpunitive, and
confidential process. For more information on the LEO Near Miss system, to share your story, or to read recent reports, please
visit the website.
National Institute of Justice
The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is the research, development, and evaluation agency of the
U.S. Department of Justice that provides objective and independent knowledge and tools to reduce
crime and promote justice. NIJ’s research agenda includes the development and evaluation of new and
innovative policies, practices, tools, and technologies and the development of performance standards to
ensure that equipment is safe and effective.
Officer Safety, Health, and Wellness Research—NIJ funds research and development efforts in a wide
variety of areas to improve officer safety, health, and wellness. NIJ supports work to study and improve officer performance
and safety on several fronts. For decades, NIJ has been on the forefront of testing and developing protective equipment for
officers, from body armor to roadside visibility aids. NIJ also funds projects to reduce officer traffic fatalities, address stress
and trauma, and reduce officer suicide. These efforts are now undertaken under the umbrella of NIJ’s Safety, Health, and
Wellness Strategic Research Plan, published in 2016.
Standards and Testing—The NIJ Standards and Testing Program fosters development of equipment standards and related
conformity assessment programs that specifically address the needs of law enforcement, corrections, and other criminal
justice agencies. The goal is to ensure, to the greatest degree possible, that equipment is safe and reliable and that it performs
according to established minimum requirements. Some of these standards are for body armor, some are for ensembles to
protect bomb technicians from improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and some are for ensembles to protect law enforcement
against chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear hazards. A list of body armor models tested and found compliant
with the NIJ body armor standards can be found at https://www.nij.gov/topics/technology/body-armor/pages/compliant-ballisticarmor.aspx.
Police Use of Force—The use of force by law enforcement officers becomes necessary and is permitted under specific
circumstances, such as in self-defense or in defense of another individual or group. The International Association of Chiefs of
Police has described use of force in its document Police Use of Force in America as the “amount of effort required by police to
compel compliance by an unwilling subject.” Officers receive guidance from their individual agencies, but no universal set of
rules governs when officers should use force and how much. NIJ-sponsored research on the use of force is directed toward
providing options to reduce the likelihood of injury to the officers and subjects involved.
IACP’s Center for Officer Safety and Wellness
The International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) Center for Officer Safety and Wellness was created
in 2012 to centralize these efforts by promoting existing resources and encouraging a cultural shift within
law enforcement agencies by emphasizing the values of safety, health, and wellness as they impact officer
The Center focuses on all aspects of an officer’s safety, health, and wellness, both on and off the job. Topics that the Center
covers range from mandatory vest and seatbelt wear policies to nutrition recommendations and wise financial decision
making. Resources developed under these topics include fact sheets, infographics, trifolds, and full reports.
The Center wants to ensure that law enforcement professionals have the resources they need to remain healthy and safe.
more information on the Center or to access resources, helpful links, and related projects, please visit the website.
In order to begin to better understand the scope and frequency of injuries sustained by law
enforcement officers, the IACP, through a cooperative agreement with the Bureau of Justice
Assistance, conducted a multidepartment
assessment of line-of-duty injuries and created Reducing Officer Injuries:
A Summary of Data Findings
and Recommendations From a Multi-Agency Injury Tracking Study, Final Report
. Eighteen different
agencies participated in this study and tracked all reported injuries over the course of one year.
This report provides an in-depth review of the data collected during this study and highlights
other findings pertinent to injury trends and officer safety considerations. It is intended to serve as
a resource for agencies and encourage them to think more critically about departmental injuries
and proactive prevention strategies. For a copy of the full report on reducing officer injuries, please visit www.theiacp.org/portals/0/pdfs/IACP_ROI_Final_Report.pdf.
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